• Amitha Puranik Manipal University, Manipal
  • Suma Nair Manipal University, Manipal
  • Binu VS National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences
  • Seena Biju T A Pai Management Institute


Background: Hot-spot detection of Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) can assist in identifying the exact geographic location of regions that need urgent attention. Aims & Objectives: To detect hot-spots of MMR at district level in the selected nine states of India and the observed pattern was further correlated with hot-spots of certain known risk factors of MMR in the same region. Material & Methods: Data on MMR was obtained from Annual Health Survey 2012-13. The hot-spot analysis of MMR and its potential risk factors were performed using Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. Results: Districts with MMR hot-spotting was largely observed in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, followed by Assam, Bihar and Jharkhand. The hot-spot analysis unveiled an inverse relation of MMR with female literacy rate, mothers who received any antenatal check-up (%), mothers who utilized Janani Suraksha Yojana (%), safe delivery (%) and urbanization (%). Marriages among females below 18 years (%), total fertility rate and women with unmet need for spacing (%) had a direct relation with MMR. Conclusion: Information on hot-spots as depicted in this study can help locate the regions vulnerable to MMR and the potential risk factors, which in turn could aid in implementing targeted intervention programs.

Author Biographies

Amitha Puranik, Manipal University, Manipal

Department of Statistics

Suma Nair, Manipal University, Manipal

Department of Community Medicine

Binu VS, National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences

Department of Biostatistics

Seena Biju, T A Pai Management Institute



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How to Cite
PURANIK, Amitha et al. DO HOT-SPOTS OF MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO EXIST IN INDIA? A DISTRICT-LEVEL SPATIAL ANALYSIS. Indian Journal of Community Health, [S.l.], v. 29, n. 4, dec. 2017. ISSN 2248-9509. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 23 mar. 2018.
Original Article