A cross sectional study to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and risk of development of cardiovascular diseases among adults attending a tertiary care hospital
Background: Mortality and morbidity due cardiovascular diseases in India is on the rise. Metabolic Syndrome which is a collection of risk factors of metabolic origin, can greatly contribute to its rising burden.
Objectives: The present study was conducted with the objective of estimating the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and 10-year cardiovascular risk among adults.
Methodology: This hospital based study included 260 adults aged 20-60 years. Metabolic Syndrome was defined using National Cholesterol Education Program –Adult Treatment Panel -3 criteria. The 10 year cardiovascular risk was estimated using Framingham risk scoring.
Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the study participants was 38.8%. Age (41-60yrs), male gender and daily consumption of high salt items were positively associated with metabolic syndrome whereas consumption of occasional high sugar items showed an inverse association with metabolic syndrome. According to Framingham Risk Scoring, 14.3% of the participants belonged to intermediate/high risk category.
Conclusion: With a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and a considerable proportion of individuals with intermediate to high 10 yr CVD risk, there is a need to design strategies to prevent future cardiovascular events.
2. Burden of CVD in India and world. Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, GBD Compare 2010[Internet]. [cited 2017 Jan 23]; Available from:http:// vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare/..
3. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation. 2002;106:3143–421.
4. Sadikot SM, Misra A. The metabolic syndrome: An exercise in utility or futility? Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2007;1:3–21.
5. Sawant A, Mankeshwar R, Shah S, Raghavan R, Dhogde G, Raje H, et al. Prevalence of
Metabolic Syndrome in Urban India. Cholesterol 2011; 2011:920983. Epub 2011 May 19. doi:10.1155/2011/920983. PMID: 21687582; PMCID: PMC3114375.
6. International Physical Activity Questionnaire [Internet]. August 2002 [cited on Dec 10 2016]; available from http://people.umass.edu/be640/yr2004/resources/Internat-physical-activity-worksheet.pdf
7. Framingham Risk Score – National Heart, Lung and Brain Institute [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jan 23]; Available from:URL:https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/resources/heart/atp-3-cholesterol-full-report.pdf.
8. Misra A, Chowbey P, Makkar BM, Vikram NK, Wasir JS, Chadha D, et al. Consensus Statement for Diagnosis of Obesity, Abdominal Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome for Asian Indians and Recommendations for Physical Activity, Medical and Surgical Management. Accessed online at http://www.japi.org/february_2009/R-1.html on June 12, 2017. PMID: 19582986.
9. Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 2005; 112:2735-52. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.169404. PMID:16157765.
10. World Health Organization; 2008. Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio. Report of WHO Expert Consultation. [Internet].[cited on 2017Jan 20];Available from:URL: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44583/1/9789241501491_eng.pdf.
11. Zimmet PZ, Alberti KG. Introduction: Globalization and the non-communicable disease epidemic. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006;14:1–3. doi:10.1038/oby.2006.1. PMID:16493116.
12. Mahato K, Kumar A, Kumar S, Shekhar S. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the patients and staff of a tertiary care hospital in Ranchi, India. Int. J. Adv. Res. 2016; 4(12): 1374-80.
13. Rothangpui, Thiyam G, Joute Z. Clinical profile in metabolic syndrome. Int J Sci Rep 2015;1(5):220-5.
14. Bansal M, Shrivastava S, Mehrotra R, Agarwal V, Kasliwal RR. Low Framingham Risk Score Despite High Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Asymptomatic North-Indian
Population. J Assoc Physicians India. 2009 Jan;57:17-22. PMID:19753753.
15. Kamble P, Deshmukh PR, Garg N. Metabolic syndrome in adult population of rural Wardha, central India. Indian J Med Res. 2010 Dec;132:701-5. PMID:21245618; PMCID: PMC3102458.
16. Deshmukh PR, Kamble P, Goswami K, Garg N. Metabolic syndrome in the rural population of Wardha, Central India: An exploratory factor analysis. Indian J Community Med 2013;38:33-8. doi: 10.4103/0970-0218.106625. PMID:23559701; PMCID:PMC3612294.
17. Chakraborty SN, Roy SK, Rahaman MA. Epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome in urban West Bengal, India. J Family Med Prim Care 2015;4:535-8. doi:10.4103/2249-4863.174279. PMID:26985412; PMCID: PMC4776605.
18. Prasad DS, Kabir Z, Dash AK, Das BC. Prevalence and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in Asian Indians: A community study from urban Eastern India. J Cardiovasc Dis Res 2012;3:204-11. doi: 10.4103/0975-3583.98895.PMID: 22923938; PMCID: PMC3425027.
19. Madan JG, Narsaria AM. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Mumbai City, India. J Obes Metab Res 2016;3:16-22.
20. Saini A, Sahni D, Bhansali A. Predominant causes of metabolic syndrome in adolescents vs adults of northwest India. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2015;49(3):121-5.
21. Deepa M, Farooq S, Datta M, Deepa R, Mohan V. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using WHO, ATPIII and IDF definitions in Asian Indians: the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES-34). Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2007 Feb;23(2):127-34. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.658. PMID:16752431.
22. Manjunath D, Uthappa CK, Kattula SR, Allam RR, Chava N, Oruganti G. Metabolic syndrome among urban Indian young adults: prevalence and associated risk factors. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2014 Sep;12(7):381-9. Epub 2014 Jul 9. doi: 10.1089/met.2014.0003. PMID: 250071.
23. Mahanta TG, Joshi R, Mahanta B, Gogoi P. Determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS) amongst persons living in Dibrugarh District of Assam. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health 2017; 5(2):52-61.
24. Oguomaa VM, Nwoseb EU, Skinnera TC, Richards RS, Digbanc KA, Onyia IC. Association between metabolic syndrome and 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease in a Nigerian population. Int Health 2016; 8: 354–9. doi:10.1093/inthealth/ihw013. PMID:27118483.