Prevalence of depression and its determinants among older persons in urban community of Northern India
Background: With increasing life expectancy people are living longer but they are not necessarily healthier than before. Nearly a quarter (23%) of the overall global burden of death and illness is in people aged over 60, and much of this burden is attributable to long-term illness like non-communicable diseases and mental health problems. Aim -To study the magnitude of depression among elderly population of Agra. Objectives-1.To estimate the prevalence of depression in elderly population of Agra. 2. To study the factors associated with depression among elderly population of Agra. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 355 elderly in urban Agra. Data was collected by house to house visit using pre-designed and pre-tested schedule. Geriatric depression scale (GDS-30) was used to assess the burden of depression in study population. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 68.05 years. Depression was found in 50.1% among study population and 15.5% had severe depression. Depression was more among the Illiterates, Muslims, financial dependents, those who were suffering from chronic disease/s, encountered a stressor in the last 6 months, less religious, not living with partner or suffered elderly abuse. Conclusion: High burden of depression was found among the victims of elderly abuse. Stressful life events and absence of spouse were found to be significant risk factors for depression. To deal with these factors we suggest a link worker Geriatric Age Social Health Agent (G-ASHA) to act as a link between family, community and authorities.
2- Park K. Park’s textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, M/s Banarsidas Bhanot, 1167, Prem Nagar, Nagpur Road, Jabalpur, India. 24th Edition 2017, Pp 631
3- WHO. Mental health and older adults. Factsheet no. 381. [cited 2017 June 20] Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs381/en/
4- Sanjay TV, Jahnavi R, Gangaboraiah B, Lakshmi P, Jayanthi S. Prevalence and factors infl uencing depression among elderly living in the urban poor locality of Bengaluru city. Int J Health Allied Sci 2014;3:105-9.
5- Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL, Lum O, Huang V, Adey M, et al. Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 1982 1983;17:37-49.
6- Shaikh Z, Pathak R. Revised Kuppuswamy and B G Prasad socio-economic scales for 2016. Int J Community Med Public Health 2017;4:997-9.
7- Sharma KD, Kadeangadi D, Mallapur M. Community-based cross-sectional study to determine depression among elderly persons residing in urban area of north Karnataka. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2016;5:2300-2304
8- Joy Patricia Pushparani, S.Chitrasena, R.Ramasubramanian. A study on the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among the elderly in Kancheepuram district, South India. Nat J Res Community Med 2017;6(4):
9- Mandolikar RY, Naik P, Akram MDS, Nirgude AS. Depression among the elderly: A cross-sectional study in an urban community. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2017;6:318-322
10- Udayar SE, Prasad DV. Epidemiological study of socio demographic factors in relation to depression among the elderly people in a rural area of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Int J Community Med Public Health 2016;3:161-5.
11- Manju Pilania Prevalence and Predictors of Depression in Community-Dwelling Elderly in Rural Haryana, India Indian J Community Med. 2017 Jan-Mar; 42(1): 13–18.
12- Zalavadiya DD, Banerjee A, Sheth AM, Rangoonwala M, Mitra A, Kadri AM. A comparative study of depression and associated risk factors among elderly inmates of old age homes and community of Rajkot: A Gujarati version of the geriatric depression scale-short form (GDS-G). Indian J Community Med [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 Dec 6 ];42:204-208 A vailable from: http://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2017/42/4/204/217225
13- Ravindra NR, Rashmi MR, Maheswaran R. Risk factors for depression among elderly in Bangalore urban district: a case control study. Int J Community Med Public Health 2017;4:2696-700.
14- Bartwal J, Rawat CS, Awasthi S. Rate of DepressiveSymptomsandAssociatedRiskFactorsAmongtheElderlyin Haldwani Block of Nainital District, Uttarakhand, India. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2017;7:34-8.
15- Maroof M, Ahmad A, Khalique N, Ansari MA. Health problems among the aged: a community based study from urban Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Int J Community Med Public Health 2016;3:944-7. Available from: http://www.ijcmph.com (Last accessed on 10/01/2018)
16- Sundru MB, Goru KB. Epidemiological study of depression among population above 60 years in Visakhapatnam, India. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2013; 2:695-702.
17- Gupta A A. Health and socioeconomic status of the elderly people living in Hilly areas of Pakhribas, Kosi Zone, Nepal. 2016, vol. 41, 4, 273279
18- Anand A. Exploring the role of socioeconomic factors in abuse and neglect of elderly population in Maharashtra, India. J Geriatr Ment Health 2016;3:150-7.
19- Govil, P. and Gupta, S. Domestic Violence against Elderly People: A Case Study of India. Advances in Aging Research, 2016, 5, 110-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/aar.2016.55011
20- Skirbekk V and James K S. Abuse against elderly in India – The role of education. BMC Public Health, 2014, 14:336.
21- Sachan, S and Kaur, S. Elderly abuse and neglect in India.Asian J. Home Sci., 2014, 9 (1) : 276-279.
22- Sengupta P, Benjamin AI. Prevalence of depression and associated risk factors among the elderly in urban and rural ﬁeld practice areas of a tertiary care institution in Ludhiana. Indian J Public Health 2015;59:3-8.