Newer insights of H1N1: Swine Flu Virus

Authors

  • Ritu Tiwari King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
  • Shivam Verma King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh https://orcid.org/0009-0006-4246-4403
  • Narsingh Verma King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0348-7419
  • Shraddha Singh King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
  • Ajay Verma King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
  • Anupam Mittal King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh https://orcid.org/0009-0001-7841-7813
  • Shiraja Haque King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
  • Toyaj Kumar King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh https://orcid.org/0009-0005-0456-2646

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47203/IJCH.2024.v36i01.005

Keywords:

H1N1 Swine Flu Virus, Respiratory Tract Infection, Epidemiology of H1N1, Pathophysiology of H1N1, Treatment of H1N1

Abstract

Swine flu, caused by the H1N1 influenza virus, is a subtype of influenza A that affects both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. It is primarily found in pigs and can be transmitted to humans through genetic variations in the virus. The 1918 Spanish flu pandemic resulted in the deaths of 50 to 100 million individuals. In 2009, the pandemic affected 178 countries, resulting in an estimated 43 to 89 million cases and 1799 deaths. The pathophysiology of H1N1 involves inflammation of the respiratory tract, with an incubation period of 1 to 4 days and a contagious period lasting 5 to 7 days. The signs and symptoms of swine flu include cough, sore throat, fever, myalgia, congestion, headache, rhinorrhoea, dizziness, sneezing, loss of appetite, fatigue, abdominal pain, shortness of breath, and in rare cases, vomiting and diarrhoea. The most common cause of death is respiratory failure, and neurological symptoms can occur due to high fever. To diagnose swine flu, various tests such as haematological, biochemical, and microbiological tests are conducted, including the collection of nasal or oral swabs for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Prevention and control measures include managing swine flu in pigs through herd management, hygiene practices, and vaccination. Treatment options vary based on the severity of the case. Mild to moderate cases can be managed with rest, antipyretics, NSAIDs, antihistamines, and oral rehydration therapy. Severe cases may require intravenous hydration, antibiotics for bacterial infections, antiviral therapy, and respiratory support.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Ritu Tiwari, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

 

 

Shivam Verma, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

 

 

Narsingh Verma, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

 

 

Shraddha Singh, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

 

 

Ajay Verma, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

 

 

Anupam Mittal, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

 

 

Shiraja Haque, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

 

 

Toyaj Kumar, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

 

 

References

Kshatriya RM, Khara NV, Ganjiwale J, Lote SD, Patel SN, Paliwal RP. Lessons learnt from the Indian H1N1 (swine flu) epidemic: Predictors of outcome based on epidemiological and clinical profile. J Family Med Prim Care. 2018;7(6):1506-1509.

Rewar S, Mirdha D, Rewar P. Treatment and Prevention of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza. Ann Glob Health. 2015;81(5):645-53.

Nogales A, Martinez-Sobrido L, Chiem K, Topham DJ, DeDiego ML. Functional Evolution of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus NS1 and PA in Humans. J Virol. 2018;92(19):e01206-18.

Tapia R, García V, Mena J, Bucarey S, Medina RA, Neira V. Infection of novel reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 swine influenza A viruses in the guinea pig model. Vet Res. 2018;49(1):73.

Hasan F, Khan MO, Ali M. Swine Flu: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Survey of Medical and Dental Students of Karachi. Cureus. 2018;10(1):e2048.

Nelson MI, Souza CK, Trovão NS, Diaz A, Mena I, Rovira A, Vincent AL, Torremorell M, Marthaler D, Culhane MR. Human-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Reassortant Viruses in Swine, Southeast Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(4):691-700.

Nickol ME, Kindrachuk J. A year of terror and a century of reflection: perspectives on the great influenza pandemic of 1918-1919. BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 6;19(1):117. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-3750-8. PMID: 30727970; PMCID: PMC6364422.

Calore EE, Uip DE, Perez NM. Pathology of the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) flu. Pathol Res Pract. 2011 Feb 15;207(2):86-90.

Somerville LK, Basile K, Dwyer DE, Kok J. The impact of influenza virus infection in pregnancy. Future Microbiol. 2018;13:263-274.

Myers KP, Olsen CW, Gray GC. Cases of swine influenza in humans: a review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(8):1084-8

Downloads

Published

2024-02-29

How to Cite

1.
Tiwari R, Verma S, Verma N, Singh S, Verma A, Mittal A, et al. Newer insights of H1N1: Swine Flu Virus. Indian J Community Health [Internet]. 2024 Feb. 29 [cited 2024 Jul. 24];36(1):22-5. Available from: https://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2679

Issue

Section

Continued Medical Education

Most read articles by the same author(s)