Correlation between perceived social support and quality of sleep and its effect on the academic performance of undergraduate medical students: A cross-sectional study


  • Pranita Khulbe Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali Government Institute of Medical Science & Research, Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand
  • Janki Bartwal Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali Government Institute of Medical Science & Research, Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand



Perceived Social Support, Sleep Quality, Academic Performance, Medical Student


Background: Social support can be explained as the availability or existence of people who make us feel loved, cared for and valued, people on whom we can rely. Apart from physical health, social networking and interaction uplift mental health, well-being, and academic performance of individuals. Sleep has been associated with achievements in academic indicators of a person, as its deficit causes a lack of attention and concentration. Methods: A survey was designed to conduct cross-sectional study among the undergraduate medical students. The validated 12 item multidimensional scale of perceived social support and 19 self -rated questions of Pittsburgh sleep quality index was used for assessing the social support and sleep quality among the students and how it affected their academic performance. Data was collected in google forms and coded & cleaned and then exported for statistical analysis, to SPSS version 20. Results: Of the total 385 undergraduate medical students, majority were female respondent and from 2nd Professional. Most of the students scored between 60-69% in their university exam. Majority of the student has poor sleep quality. The academic performance has statistically significant association with perceived social support while age of the student was significantly associated with poor quality of sleep. A negative correlation was noted between perceived social support and sleep quality. Conclusion: This study has highlighted the negative impact of a lack of perceived social support on the sleep quality of medical students. Results also showed evidence of an overall poor quality of sleep in the medical students.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Janki Bartwal, Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali Government Institute of Medical Science & Research, Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand

Assistant Professor

Department of Community Medicine


Sarason IG, Levine HM, Basham RB, Sarason BR. Assessing social support: The Social Support Questionnaire. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1983; 44(1):127–39.

Helgeson VS. Social support and quality of life. Qual Life Res. 2003; 12(1):25–31.

Cohen S, Wills TA. Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychol Bull. 1985; 98(2):310-57.

Reininghaus U, Morgan C. Integrated models in psychiatry: the state of the art. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2014; 49(1):1-2.

Azad MC, Fraser K, Rumana N, Abullah AF, Shahana N, Hanly PJ et al. Sleep disturbances among medical students: a global perspective. J Clin Sleep Med. 2015;11(1):69–74.

Chinawa JM, Chukwu BF, Obu HA. Sleep practices among medical students in Pediatrics Department of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2014;17(2):232-6.

Giri P, Baviskar M, Phalke D. Study of sleep habits and sleep problems among medical students of pravara institute of medical sciences loni, western maharashtra, India. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2013;3(1):51-4.

Zimet GD, Powell SS, Farley GK, Werkman S, Berkoff KA. Psychometric characteristics of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1990; 55(3-4):610-7.

Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF III, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res. 1989; 28(2):193-213.

Zamani-Alavijeh F, Dehkordi FR, Shahry P. Perceived social support among students of medical sciences. Electron Physician. 2017; 9(6):4479-4488.

Mansourian M, Solhi M, Adab Z, Latifi M. Relationship between dependence to mobile phone with loneliness and social support in University students. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2014;21(120):1–8.

Reza Soltani P, Ghanbari Khanghah A, Moridi M. Comparison of health related quality of life in dormitory and non-dormitory students. Holistic Nursing and Midwifery Journal. 2015;24(4):38–45.

Park KH, Kim DH, Kim SK, Yi YH, Jeong JH, Chae J, Hwang J, Roh H. The relationships between empathy, stress and social support among medical students. Int J Med Educ. 2015;6:103-8.

Voltmer E, Kieschke U, Schwappach DL, Wirsching M, Spahn C. Psychosocial health risk factors and resources of medical students and physicians: a cross-sectional study. BMC Med Educ. 2008;8:46.

Matud M, Ibáñez I, Bethencourt JM, Marrero R, Carballeira M. Structural gender differences in perceived social support. Personality and Individual Differences. 2003; 35(8):1919-1929.

Meinzer MC, Hill RM, Pettit JW, Nichols-Lopez KA. Parental Support Partially Accounts for the Covariation Between ADHD and Depressive Symptoms in College Students. J. Psychopathol. Behav. Assess. 2015; 37:247–55.

Karawekpanyawong N, Wongpakaran T, Wongpakaran N, Boonnag C, Siritikul S, Chalanunt S, et al. Impact of Perceived Social Support on the Relationship between ADHD and Depressive Symptoms among First Year Medical Students: A Structural Equation Model Approach. Children. 2021; 8(5):401.

Griffin B, Hu W. Parental career expectations: Effect on medical students’ career attitudes over time. Med. Educ. 2019; 53:584–92.

Baumeister RF, Leary MR. The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychol Bull. 1995; 117 (3): 497-529.

Yamada Y, Klugar M, Ivanova K, Oborna I. Psychological distress and academic self-perception among international medical students: the role of peer social support. BMC Med Educ. 2014;14:256.

Rospenda KM, Halpert J, Richman JA. Effects of social support on medical students' performances. Acad Med. 1994, 69 (6): 496-500.

Fang G, Chan PWK, Kalogeropoulos P. Social Support and Academic Achievement of Chinese Low-Income Children: A Mediation Effect of Academic Resilience. Int J Psychol Res (Medellin). 2020;13(1):19-28.

Mackinnon SP. Perceived social support and academic achievement: cross-lagged panel and bivariate growth curve analyses. J Youth Adolesc. 2012; 41(4):474-85.

Almojali AI, Almalki SA, Alothman AS, Masuadi EM, Alaqeel MK. The prevalence and association of stress with sleep quality among medical students. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2017; 7(3):169-174.

Abdulghani HM, Alrowais NA, Bin-Saad NS, Al-Subaie NM, Haji AM, Alhaqwi AI. Sleep disorder among medical students: relationship to their academic performance. Med Teach. 2012;34 Suppl 1:S37-41.

Mosley TH Jr, Perrin SG, Neral SM, Dubbert PM, Grothues CA, Pinto BM. Stress, coping, and well-being among third-year medical students. Acad Med. 1994;69(9):765-7.

Waqas A, Khan S, Sharif W, Khalid U, Ali A. Association of academic stress with sleeping difficulties in medical students of a Pakistani medical school: a cross sectional survey. Peer J. 2015; 3:e840.

Saipanish R. Stress among medical students in a Thai medical school. Med Teach. 2003; 25(5):502-6.

Redline S, Kirchner HL, Quan SF, Gottlieb DJ, Kapur V, Newman A. The Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Sleep-Disordered Breathing on Sleep Architecture. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(4):406–18.

Zhang B, Wing Y. Sex Differences in Insomnia: A Meta-Analysis. Sleep. 2006; 29(1):85-93.

Veldi M, Aluoja A, Vasar V. Sleep quality and more common sleep-related problems in medical students. Sleep Med. 2005; 6(3):269-75.

Maheshwari G, Shaukat F. Impact of Poor Sleep Quality on the Academic Performance of Medical Students. Cureus. 2019; 11(4):e4357.

James BO, Omoaregba JO, Igberase OO. Prevalence and correlates of poor sleep quality among medical students at a Nigerian university. Ann Nigerian Med. 2011;5:1-5.

Ahrberg K, Dresler M, Niedermaier S, Steiger A, Genzel L. The interaction between sleep quality and academic performance. J Psychiatr Res. 2012; 46(12):1618-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.09.008.

Kent de Grey RG, Uchino BN, Trettevik R, Cronan S, Hogan JN. Social support and sleep: A meta-analysis. Health Psychol. 2018;37(8):787-798.

Xiao H, Zhang Y, Kong D, Li S, Yang N. The Effects of Social Support on Sleep Quality of Medical Staff Treating Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in China. Med Sci Monit. 2020;26:e923549.

Rambod M, Ghodsbin F, Beheshtipour N, Raieyatpishe AA, Mohebi Noubandegani, Z, Mohammadi-Nezhad A. The Relationship between Perceived Social Support and Quality of Sleep in Nursing Students. Iran Journal of Nursing. 2013; 25(79):12-23.

Chung J. Social support, social strain, sleep quality, and actigraphic sleep characteristics: evidence from a national survey of US adults. Sleep Health. 2017;3(1):22-7.




How to Cite

Khulbe P, Bartwal J. Correlation between perceived social support and quality of sleep and its effect on the academic performance of undergraduate medical students: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Community Health [Internet]. 2024 Feb. 29 [cited 2024 Jul. 24];36(1):86-94. Available from:



Original Article