Association between pulmonary tuberculosis and smoking: a case control study
Background: India has very high rates of tuberculosis and smoked tobacco use among adults. Efforts to control both tobacco use and tuberculosis in India need to be addressed. Our objective is to examine the role of smoking as a risk factor for the development of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: A total of 613 TB patients frequency matched with 1226 controls were interviewed by using a structured questionnaire. The associations between cigarette smoking and risk of TB were estimated by computing odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) from logistic regression model. Patients’ smoking behavior and patterns of smoking cessation were followed after TB diagnosis. Results: The proportion of cigarette smoking was 54.6% in TB cases, which was significantly higher than that in controls (45.1%) with adjusted OR of 1.93(95% CI: 1.51–2.48) Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was associated with lifetime TB infection and the association was most evident among the heaviest smokers (> 1 pack per day, > 30 pack years). Interventions of smoking cessation are recommended to be included in the current TB control practice.