Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Infection Among Household Children Contacts of Sputum Smear Positive Tuberculosis Cases
Background: India has highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) globally. The source of infection for children is usually an adult in their household with active TB. Only few studies have been carried out among household children contacts of active TB patients in India to assess the risk factors of infection among children. Aim and Objective: To study the risk factors of TB infection among household children contacts of sputum positive patients. Material and Methods: We conducted study on 200 household children contacts (1-15 years) of sputum positive patients registered at DOTS centers in Lucknow district, Uttar Pradesh. Stratified sampling was done. A semi structured questionnaire was administered to collect the information. Infection in children was assessed by TST (Mantoux test). Results: TST positivity in children of TST positivity was associated with female index case (p=0.027), lower socioeconomic status (p=0.011), overcrowding (0.008) and duration of symptoms before treatment (p<0.001). Among the factors of children, age >6 years, duration of stay with index case >10 hours/day and malnutrition were significantly associated. Conclusion: The study concludes that TB infection among children is significantly associated with various factors related to index case, susceptible host and environment, which can be intervened to prevent TB infection in children.