Health Impact Assessment as a tool in India for evaluating how policies, programs influence the health of the population

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47203/IJCH.2024.v36i02.003

Keywords:

Health Impact Assessment, Health determinants, Prospective HIA, Retrospective HIA

Abstract

Background: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) systematically assesses the health impacts of policies, programs on a population, with a focus on the holistic well-being of individuals. This approach employs diverse methods to identify positive and negative health impacts, along with unintended consequences, offering recommendations for effective management. HIA considers economic, social, psychological, environmental, and organizational factors in community health. The process involves key steps like assessing baseline health, identifying impacts, quantifying and valuing them, ranking importance, and proposing management recommendations. HIA can be prospective, retrospective, or concurrent during implementation. Methodology: The systematic process included a detailed protocol for scoping review, comprehensive database search, and inclusion criteria for studies published in English from January 2020 to December 2023. Results: Its importance resides in enhancing decision-making by providing insights into health ramifications, fostering dedication to implementing recommendations, and tackling both immediate and indirect developmental effects on health. HIA engages in promoting democratic processes, fairness, sustainable development, and ethical use of evidence in conducting comprehensive impact evaluations. Despite global recognition, barriers like limited funding, insufficient evidence, and perceived time constraints exist. Solutions, such as creative funding, evidence consolidation, and long-term cost-effectiveness, show potential for overcoming these barriers. Conclusion: HIA serves as a valuable instrument for giving precedence to community health decision-making, nurturing fair and sustainable development.

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References

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Published

2024-04-30

How to Cite

1.
Kumar N, Rasania SK. Health Impact Assessment as a tool in India for evaluating how policies, programs influence the health of the population. Indian J Community Health [Internet]. 2024 Apr. 30 [cited 2024 Jul. 24];36(2):162-7. Available from: https://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/article/view/2850

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