Concise Information for the Frontline Health care workers in the era of COVID-19
Keywords:Frontline Health Care Workers, COVID-19, Epidemiology
Background: COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a public health emergency of worldwide concern. Originated in Wuhan District of China, it has spread globally at a very rapid rate causing millions of deaths worldwide. Aims and Objectives: To summarize findings from all the current literature available from different databases regarding the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of the SARS-CoV-2. This will help out the reader to have a fine gist of all the data available on SARS-CoV-2 in an effective manner. Methods: All the research literature from Jan-March 2020 and available on the following online databases: bio-Rxiv, PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase as well as CNKI and Wang Fang data were included in the review. The keywords used for data search were “coronavirus,” “nCoV,” “2019-nCoV,” and “COVID-19.” Conclusion: After undergoing extensive literature search, it can be concluded that it mainly effects elderly male population. Mode of transmission is droplet transmission and human to human transmission is present. The main diagnostic modality remains molecular assays though several rapid testing methods are on the way. Due to lack of specific treatment guidelines, Infection control and supportive treatment remain the mainstay. Plethora of experiments are under trails for development of effective vaccine which can be a ray of hope in future.
Richman DD, Whitley RJ, Hayden FG, eds. Clinical virology 4th edn. Washington: ASM Press, 2016.
Yin Y, Wunderink RG. MERS, SARS and other coronaviruses as causes of pneumonia. Respirology 2018; 23:130-37.
Zaki AM, van Boheemen S, Besterbroer TM, Osterhaus AD, Fouchier RA. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. N Engl J Med 2012; 367:1814-20.
WHO. Summary of probable SARS cases with onset of illness from 1 November 2002 to 31st July 2003. Dec 31, 2003. https://www.who.int/csr/sars/country/table2004_04_21/en/ (accessed Mar 29, 2020).
WHO. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). November, 2019. http://www.who.int/emrgencies/mers-cov/en/ (accessed Mar 29, 2020).
WHO. Novel coronavirus- China. Jan 12, 2020. http://www.who.int/csr/don/12-january-2020-novel-coronavirus-china/en/ (accessed Mar 29, 2020).
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet (London, England). 2020; 395:497-506.
WHO. Rolling updates on Coronavirus disease (COVID 19) updated on 31 March 2020 accessed on 3/04/2020 http: 2www.who.intdiseases. events
Organization WH. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report-84.2020.
World health Organization website. Rolling updates on Coronavirus disease (COVID 19) updated on 31 March 2020 www.euro.who.international> news
World health Organization website. WHO database of publications on coronavirus disease (COVID – 2019). www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/global-research-on-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov. Accessed March 29,2020.
Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001316.
Xiao F, Tang M, Zheng X, Li C, He J, Hong Z, et al. Evidence for gastrointestinal infection of SARS-CoV-2. medRxiv.2020:2020.02.17.20023721.
Xia J, Tong J, Liu M, Shen Y, Guo D. Evaluation of coronavirus in tears and conjunctival secretions of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Journal of medical virology.2020.
Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang W, et al. Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with the recent pneumonia outbreak in humans and its potential bat origin. bioRxiv. 2020; doi:https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.
Li T, Wei C, Li W, Hongwei F, Shi J. Beijing Union Medical College Hospital on “pneumonia of novel coronavirus infection” diagnosis and treatment proposal (V2.0) Med J Peking Union Med Coll Hosp 2020.http://kns.cmki.net/kcms/detail/11.5882r.20200130.1430.002html. Accessed March 30 2020.
Medical expert group of Tongji hospital. Quick guide to the diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia for novel coronavirus infections (third edition). Herald Med 2020. http://kns.cnki.net/kcms/detila/42.1293.r.202002301.1803002 html. Accessed March 29 2020.
Backer JA, Klinkenberg D, Wallinga J. The incubation period of 2019-nCoV infections among travelers from Wuhan. China Euro Surveill.2020;https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917. ES.2020.25.5.2000062.
Wang C, Wang X. Prevalence, nosocomial infection and psychological prevention of novel coronavirus infection. Chin General Pract Nurs. 2020; 18:2-3.
Wang W, Tang J, Wei F. Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCo V) in Wuhan, China, Journal of medical virology. 2020; 92:441-7.
Chen J. Pathogenicity and transmissibility of 2019-nCoV-A quick overview and comparison with other emerging viruses. Microbes Infect 2020 Feb 4. pii: S1286-4579(20)30026-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.micinf.2020.01.004. [Epub ahead of print]
M. Ceccarelli, M. Berretta, E. Venanzi Rullo, G. Nunnari, B. Cacoparodo. Differences and similarities between Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus (CoV) and SARS-CoV-2. Would a rose by another name smell as sweet? European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 2020; 24: 2781-2783
Ying Liu, Albert A Gayle, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Joacim Rocklöv. The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS coronavirus, Journal of Travel Medicine, Volume 27, Issue 2, March 2020, taaa021, https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa021
Linton NM, Kobayashi T, Yang Y, et al. Incubation period and other epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infections with right truncation: a statistical analysis of publicly available case data. J Clin Med. 2020;9. [PMID: 32079150] doi:10.3390/jcm9020538
Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, et al. The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application. Ann Intern Med. 2020; [Epub ahead of print 10 March 2020]. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/M20-0504
Varia M, Wilson S, Sarwal S, et al; Hospital Outbreak Investigation Team. Investigation of a nosocomial outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Toronto, Canada. CMAJ. 2003; 169:285-92. [PMID: 12925421]
Organization WH. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report-84.2020.
W. Guan, Z. Ni, Yu Hu, W. Liang et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Eng J Med. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
Adhikari, S., Meng, S., Wu, Y. et al. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infect Dis Poverty 9, 29 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x
Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020; 395:507–13
Shi H Han X Jiang N Et al. Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; (published online Feb 24.) https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30086-4
Chung M Bernheim A Mei X et al. CT imaging features of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Radiology. 2020; (published online Feb 4. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2020200230
Ng M Lee E Yang J Et al. Imaging profile of the COVID-19 infection: radiologic findings and literature review. Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging. 2020; 2e200034
Bo Diao, Chenhui Wang, Yingjun Tan, Xiewan Chen et.al. Reduction and Functional Exhaustion of T Cells in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). medRxiv 2020.02.18.20024364; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.18.20024364
Chaolin Huang, Yeming Wang, Xingwang Li, Lili Ren et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020; 395:497-506.
Strategy for COVID19 testing in India (Version 4, dated 09/04/2020) https://icmr.nic.in/sites/default/files/upload_documents/Strategey_for_COVID19_Test_v4_09042020.pdf
Ai T, Yang Z, Hou H, Zhan C, Chen C, Lv W, Tao Q, Sun Z, Xia L. Correlation of chest CT and RT-PCR testing in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: a report of 1014 cases. Radiology. 2020 Feb 26:200642.
Li Y, Xia L. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Role of chest CT in diagnosis and management. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2020 Feb 21:1-7.
Xie X, Zhong Z, Zhao W, Zheng C, Wang F, Liu J. Chest CT for typical 2019-nCoV pneumonia: relationship to negative RT-PCR testing. Radiology. 2020 Feb 12:200343.
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Xhao Jianping, Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020; 395:497-506. https://doi.orh/10.1016/50140-6376(20)30183-5.
Government of India Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Directorate General of Health Services (EMR Division) Revised Guidelines on Clinical Management of COVID – 19 https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/RevisedNationalClinicalManagementGuidelineforCOVID1931032020.pdf
Organization WH. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when COVID- 19 disease is suspected: interim guidance, 13 March 2020. Published Online First: 2020.https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/331446 (accessed 16 Mar2020)
Interim clinical guidance for adults with suspected or confirmed covid-19 in Belgium 31 march 2020; version 6
Li H, Wang YM, Xu JY, Cao B. Potential antiviral therapeutics for 2019 Novel Coronavirus. 2020 Feb 5; 43(0): E002. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2020.0002.
Tchesnokov EP, Feng JY, Porter DP, Gotte M. Mechanism of inhibition of ebola virus rna-dependent rna polymerase by remdesivir. Viruses. 2019; 11(4): E326. doi: 10.3390/v11040326.
Holshue Michelle L., DeBolt Chas, Lindquist Scott, Lofy Kathy H., Wiesman John, Bruce Hollianne, Spitters Christopher, Ericson Keith, Wilkerson Sara, Tural Ahmet, Diaz George, Cohn Amanda, Fox LeAnne, Patel Anita, Gerber Susan I., Kim Lindsay, Tong Suxiang, Lu Xiaoyan, Lindstrom Steve, Pallansch Mark A., Weldon William C., Biggs Holly M., Uyeki Timothy M., Pillai Satish K. First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020; 382(10):929–936. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001191.
Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Biosci Trends. 2020; Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32074550.
Lim J, Jeon S, Shin HY, Kim MJ, Seong YM, Lee WJ, et al. Case of the index patient who caused tertiary transmission of COVID-19 infection in Korea: the application of lopinavir/ritonavir for the treatment of COVID-19 infected pneumonia monitored by quantitative RT-PCR. J Korean Med Sci. 2020; 35(6): e79. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2020.35. e79.
Wang Z, Chen X, Lu Y, Chen F, Zhang W. Clinical characteristics and therapeutic procedure for four cases with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia receiving combined Chinese and Western medicine treatment. Biosci Trends. 2020. 10.5582/bst.2020.01030
China Seeks Plasma From Recovered Patients to Treat Virus | Time. Available from: https://time.com/5784286/covid-19-china-plasma-treatment/.
Shen C, Wang Z, Zhao F, et al. Treatment of 5 Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 with Convalescent Plasma. JAMA. Published online March 27, 2020.
Vernon J Lee, Calvin J Chiew, Wei Xin Khong, Interrupting transmission of COVID-19: lessons from containment efforts in Singapore, Journal of Travel Medicine, , taaa039, https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa039
WHO. Advice on the use of masks in the community, during home care and in health care settings in the context of the novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV outbreak (Interim guidance).2020. WHO/nCoV/IPC_Masks/2020. Accessed 2 March 2020.
Manual on DIY Masks_India_2. Issued by the office of the Principal Scientific advisor to the Government of India. March_30, 2020.
Patrì A, Fabbrocini G, Hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin: a synergistic combination for COVID-19 chemoprophylaxis and/or treatment? Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.04.017.
Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 20]. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;105949. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Indian Journal of Community Health
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.